Houjun Liu

cryo-electron microscopy

cyro-EM is a structure determination system of a solution (Dutta, M. 2018. J indian inst sci 98) to analyze a structural population of particles from TEM; the resulting 3-D structures obtained can be analyzed and classified.

“The Resolution Revolution”: much better structures to analyze because of high-fidelity cyro-EM

cyro-EM vs x-ray crystallography

cyro-EM can identify heterogeneous motions throughout the structure, instead of averaging out multiple structural combinations; instead of the “general” structure on average, we can get a collection of various states the particle can be in.

manifold embedding

manifold embedding is set of methods using diffusion maps to analyze the primary dynamics behavior, not sure what exactly are the methods


ensemble reweighting


  • take MD => create “fake” cyro-EM images
  • [something happens I didn’t catch for cyro-em]
  • then, project back to MD. misfolded elements would then be removed