Traditional values in Caribbean and African societies often place womens’ value in the context of other men. When women pursue independent careers such as midwives and healers, they could be called “witches.”

Maryse Condé demonstrates this bias in the novel I, Tituba. She writes that “Yao’s love had transformed [Tituba]’s mother”, making her a “young woman.” (Condé 7) In the passage, the womanhood of Tituba’s mother is framed as only being granted when she encounters Yao; in contrast, Mama Yaya’s womanhood exists independently, yet she is viewed as a witch.

Next Steps

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You now get to make a choice. You may either…

Pursue independence

You may choose to face the consequences of leveraging the harsh education system to attempt to achieve social advancement. To do so, follow this link.

Seek domestic dependence

Or, you may choose to follow domestic roles without continuing to pursue education. If so, follow this link.