Houjun Liu


Humans either over-rely (drive a Tesla while sleeping) or under rely (interfering) with robot’s actions.

  1. human and robot interactions may depend on entire history
    1. trust is a proxy for the full interaction history
  2. the human’s policy must be modeled by th robot
  3. trust is demonstrated through real-world experimentation


Add two variable

  • Trust: \(\theta_{t}\), the robot’s ability to succeed in a task
  • Performance: \(e_{t+1}\), success or failure in attempting a task

the trust model probabilities for model’s correct modeling of humans are low: high variance between participants.

Trust Dynamics

models human’s trust in the robot as a linear gaussian.

Human Model


Sadly, the system didn’t actually increase in trust score, but the performance was better through lower human intervention.